Vedaaranya Heritage Arts and Healing Festival 2016

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Prof. Kosherbaeva Aigerim

 

Doctor of Science, Professor
Kazakhstan, Almaty

FORMATION OF HUMANISTIC OUTLOOK AS THE MAJOR PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

For our republic, studying of concepts of humanism and distribution of its principles, in our opinion, should serve the purpose of filling of that ideological vacuum which was formed in public consciousness as a result of processes of modernization of the country. The problem of humanistic education is in an education system is especially actual. «Humanistic character of education» as it is told about in the Law on education, practically remains only education, unfortunately, doesn't like the modern scientifically-humanistic maintenance, that is saved up by world scientifically-educational community as a result of intensive and wide scientific researches. So far the rupture formed between its constitutionally-legal status as a basis of a state policy in the field of national education and its real distribution of average and the higher school as system world outlook competence and base moral values, in our opinion, remains.

In performance at congress of educators and sciences head of the state Nazarbaev N.A. has underlined that it is necessary to develop traditions of spirituality in education, to bring up not simply future generation, and generation of patriots, spiritually and physically formed citizens realizing importance of universal values.

In a context of formation of moral culture, spirituality of the person such problems of education of personal qualities, as conscientiousness, modesty, decency, compulsion, a correctness, tolerance, feeling of compassion, mercy are considered.

Roots of spiritually-moral education lie deeply in bowels of national pedagogy. With a view of preservation of a principle of historical continuity, development of spiritual culture, it is important to use invaluable samples of national pedagogy, the richest popular literature, ethical thoughts of great educators, and pedagogical heritages of great teachers.

According to Komensky J.A.'s definition «the Soul of the person – is a body life, uniform in all: it is only vegetative in plants; together with it is sensitive in animals; except this – reasonable in the person. The latter is shown in three (abilities): in mind (thinking) which it learns and understands good and harm, either valid or seeming in an ox which it selects and wishes or rejects and is averted from the learned; in the spirit of which it aspires to reach the selected good or avoids the rejected harm. From here – hope and fear in desire and disgust. From here love and joy in pleasure; but – anger and grief in suffering. The true knowledge of things is knowledge (science), false – error, suspicion (assumption)». Spiritually-moral ideas of the far predecessors – Firdausi, Nizami, Navoi etc. Abay Kunanbaev creatively developed. All life has been aimed at directing the people on a true way. The person, told Abay, isn't born reasonable, and becomes it. T! he Reason and reasonable behavior come to the person in due course, in the course of physical and intellectual spiritually-moral development. The desire to see, hear, learn the world is put in human nature, and how the person uses it is nature gift, its destiny depends. The recognition of potential ability of the person to perfection, intellectual and moral development is "rational" ethics of Abay.

Complexity and dramatic character of development of humanism of the XXth century with its world wars, genocide and the international terrorism, nevertheless, didn't become the forerunner of crash of humanistic ideas. They have laid down in a basis of modern democracies, international law, movements for human rights and preservation of the environment and by that stimulated the further researches in this area.

The humanism should be comprehended not only as the fact taking about a place in the past, but as rather significant area of modern culture. Being modernized and developing, the humanism steadily strengthened the presence at culture, at the increasing measure defining spiritual destiny of mankind. The humanism carries out the mission in life of the world community as the strategic partner of reason and a science, as the world outlook base to education and upbringing, as intellectual, moral and legal basic principles of democracy. As a whole it is unique and productive as space of dialogue and intercultural communications, as one of the most effective integrative mechanisms in formation of base values and dynamics of world culture of XXI century.

The modern humanism defines the blessing of the person as criterion of an estimation of all social phenomena of the validity. The humanism reflects the social validity from the point of view not real, but due, shows to a society and its separate representatives high requirements of the worthy, valid relation to the person, a recognition him high value on the earth.

With reference to pedagogy the humanism reflects process of updating of education on the basis of values of universal and national culture, forms installations on education of the person with high intellectual, moral and physical values.
It is impossible to disagree with Kuznetsov B.G. who told: «Communication of epoch loses meaning if everything that gives value of human life, - searches the truth, good and beauty – is limited by the given instant if it isn't present sense of live successive communication of epoch if we don't search for results of the past and future germs in the present. And if we do not search in the past live, close to us, preparing our life, favorite by us. Now through stream of live, unsatisfied searching thought passing through its history» is especially close to us in the cultural past of mankind.

Centuries later after Renaissance which have defined concept and main principles of humanism, for the person it is still not indifferent, what was its evolution, what nature of a society that the nature of the person as human life according to its nature should be arranged represents. In a counterbalance to technocratic development, the person, on the former stores in the soul «humanistic grains» former epoch under laws of "genetic memory», in a new fashion comprehends and reinterprets the past in a context of modern history, studies a past heritage, comparing it to activity «new humanists».

The humanism is a modern realism. It is not dogma, and a method, not the purpose, and a way. It is a result of universal moral experience. The humanism doesn't offer the person any recipes, and to a society - "rescue" or guaranteed "the light future". Uniqueness of humanism as outlooks consists that, doing an emphasis on merits of the person, it offers it the program of its strengthening vitality, expansions of natural creative possibilities, and the critical thinking develops. The humanism helps the person to use properly the exclusive gift - reason, it learns to moral and civil responsibility learns to a conscious and responsible moral, civil and political choice. The humanism offers a society the program of self-organizing on the basis of principles of freedom and justice, legality and the social consent, tolerance. It teaches dialogue and compromises, the civil world and consolidation. Gradual turn of many countries observed now to values of freedom, ! democracy, a lawful state, respect for the person and human rights, from our point of view, allows to draw a conclusion on irreversibility of processes of integration of ideas and principles of humanism not only in consciousness of people, but also in public life. Humanistic principles lay down in a basis of legislative activity of various institutes and the organizations state and a world scale.

The international relations are humanized; humanistic values are reflected in any strategic political and social programs. Undoubtedly, they are looked through and in the concept of the new personal-focused formation. What means of the decision of problems of humanistic education does the education system have? It is, first of all, training process: students receive knowledge of morals on employment of humanitarian disciplines.

The formation humanization is considered as the major socially-pedagogical principle reflecting modern public tendencies of construction of functioning of an education system.

Humanistic outlook as the generalized frame of reference, belief, ideals today one of requirements of formation of the person. If the humanism is a system of certain sights at the world the person appears the backbone factor, a kernel of humanistic outlook. Thus its relation contains not only world estimation, but also an estimation of the place in the surrounding validity. Hence, in humanistic outlook just also find the expression diverse relations to the person, to a society, to cultural wealth, to activity, that is, as a matter of fact, to the whole world as a whole.

Outlook formation is made by two ways: directly – in life, in activity and indirectly – through mastering in the course of training and education.

Thus, one of the major pedagogical problems connected with formation of humanistic outlook, is a process of formation of private judgments and belief of students. In the absence of the realized sights and belief the person can acquire only formally the facts and generalizations of world outlook character. Only "transfer" of knowledge and personally realized experience got in various activities, in steady sights and belief in which basis ideological aspirations of the person will lie, will generate the accurate outlook directing behavior of the person.

Process of "transfer" of knowledge in belief, outlook formations is closely connected with formation of the general orientation of the person, i.e. system of its relations to the validity. Formation of the personality of the student, in our representations, is defined, first of all, by a place with which it occupies in system of human relations accessible to it, and also in what parity there are the requirements shown to it by life and its psychological features.

As experience, formation of belief trained including humanistic, more realized goes at student's age testifies.

If in the teenage period imitation still takes place then the student in the behavior is guided by circumstances , shows independence in behavior, aspires to lean against own vital supervision and impressions.

Basis for formation of belief of students, first of all, is scientific knowledge. It is possible to name means of formation of outlook training process, after-hour activity, independent work of students, their experience got in dialogue and life. Mastering of world outlook aspects of knowledge, in turn, is provided with maintenance selection, teaching methods, allocation of fundamental ideas in each area of knowledge and activity, interdisciplinary communications. Sights and belief, besides, are formed in dialogue and in own practical activities of students: labor, public, technical and so forth.

The tolerance principle, principle of self-determination of the person, capable to provide a free choice and responsibility of students for the decisions and actions should become an indispensable condition of formation of humanistic belief.

The position of the teacher is very important for development believes by students. It should have believes itself, live according to them, be able to speak about them with students, without imposing them and simultaneously without refusing them from tactical reasons. At formation of the personality of trained, its outlook paramount value concern, object and which subject it is. Therefore it is important, that the relations developing in collectives had personal character. The believes formed on the basis of personal relations, it isn't simple comprehension of this or that world outlook idea, and internal acceptance of this idea as, become stimulus to certain activity, behavior. The outlook is formed, at last, only in that case when teachers aren't limited to the message trained new knowledge, and with all system of work stimulate certain their personal relation to the studied facts, the phenomena, concepts, theories, development of their judgments and estimations.

Vocational training and humanistic education should represent uniform process of purposeful formation of the person of the expert. Formation can't be reduced exclusively to transfer of knowledge, it should carry out and such functions, as formation of some the new personal qualities, new valuable orientations, flexible thinking, installations to dialogue and cooperation. Also necessity of qualitative statement of educational process for high school from here follows. Humanistic education of students should be guided by the end results of all process of high school preparation. From in what measure educational process in high school will correspond to these requirements, efficiency of all work of high school depends. As the object of education is students special value for educational work has the account of their socially-psychological features which demand regular studying.

In the general view the education purpose in high school is a formation of humanistically focused person of the expert of the top skills. Interests of the student, university and a society, and also "model" of the expert, capable to work in difficult, quickly changing economic, political, social conditions should be thus harmonized. However it is inadmissible to reduce all educational work only to nonlearning actions. The educational potential of university includes educational means of teaching of subject matters, educational means of educational work, industrial practices, course and degree designing. The educational work conducted on different courses, should differ both on problems, and under the form. On younger courses it is substantially directed on adaptation of students to new conditions of training, to other organization of cerebration. At this stage the hard work on preventive maintenance of bad habits should be spent most; actions should be directed als! o on formation of healthy and solid collective of educational group. Therefore the basic weight of educational work on younger courses should lay down on shoulders of curators and teachers of general educational and humanitarian disciplines. Formation of professionally important qualities of the person and formation of psychological availability for service on the selected specialty becomes the purpose of educational work on older years. At the same time the success of educational process in high school depends also on how the student perceives educational effects or influence, what its own activity in business of formation of qualities of the future expert. In this connection two more major directions of educational work are allocated: inculcation to students of requirement and skills of self-education, and also creation of effective system of student's self-management. Each student should take school of student's self-management then he not only will understand, but also ! will feel practically what the essence of democratization of p! ublic re lations in high school and a society consist, including in professional sphere.